To investigate the factors regulating the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains containing the repeating disaccharide [3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1] in animal cell glycoproteins, we have examined the structures and terminal sequences of these chains in the complex-type asparagine-linked oligosaccharides from the mouse lymphoma cell line BW5147. Cells were grown in medium containing [6-3H]galactose, and radiolabeled glycopeptides were prepared and fractionated by serial lectin affinity chromatography. The glycopeptides containing the poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains in these cells were complex-type tri- and tetraantennary asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. The poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains in these glycopeptides had four different terminal sequences with the structures: I, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,3Gal-R; II, Gal alpha 1,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNac beta 1,3Gal-R; III, Sia alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,3Gal-R; and IV, Sia alpha 2,6Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,3Gal-R. We have found that immobilized tomato lectin interacts with high affinity with glycopeptides containing three or more linear units of the repeating disaccharide [3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1] and thereby allows for a separation of glycopeptides on the basis of the length of the chain. A high percentage of the long poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains bound by immobilized tomato lectin were not sialylated and contained the simple terminal sequence of Structure I. In addition, a high percentage of the sialic acid residues that were present in the long chains were linked alpha 2,3 to penultimate galactose residues (Structure III). In contrast, a high percentage of the shorter poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains not bound by the immobilized lectin were sialylated, and most of the sialic acid residues in these chains were linked alpha 2,6 to galactose (Structure IV). These results indicate that there is a relationship in these cells between poly-N-acetyllactosamine chain length and the degree and type of sialylation of these chains.
In this report, we describe our studies on the structures of the O-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins synthesized by the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. Adult male schistosomes were incubated with either [2-3H]mannose, [6-3H]glucosamine, or [6-3H]galactose to metabolically radiolabel newly synthesized glycoproteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorographic analyses indicated that many glycoproteins were labeled by each of the radioactive precursors. Glycopeptides were prepared from radiolabeled glycoproteins by pronase treatment and fractionated on columns of concanavalin A-Sepharose and pea lectin-agarose. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released from glycopeptides by treatment with mild base/borohydride. All O-linked material was found in glycopeptides not bound by either of the immobilized lectins. The structures of the released chains were then analyzed by a variety of techniques. Our results demonstrate that the schistosomes synthesize glycoproteins containing two major types of simple O-linked sugar chains. One type, which represents a minor fraction of the O-linked oligosaccharides, contains N-acetylgalactosamine linked to peptide. These O-linked chains occur as terminal O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine and the O-linked disaccharide, galactose----N-acetylgalactosamine. Sialic acid was not present in either of these O-linked chains or in any other glycopeptides derived from adult male schistosomes. However, the major type of O-linked chain in glycoproteins synthesized by adult schistosomes is an unusual terminal O-linked N-acetylglucosamine linked to peptide. This latter structure represents approximately 10% of the total radioactive N-acetylglucosamine recovered in all glycopeptides. Our results also suggest the possibility that the O-linked oligosaccharides are highly clustered on the glycopeptides.
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A-431 is a glycoprotein of apparent molecular weight = 170,000. During biosynthesis, the receptor is first detected as a precursor of apparent Mr = 160,000. In this report we describe our studies on the structures of the oligosaccharide moieties of the mature receptor and its precursor. A-431 cells were grown in medium containing radioactive sugars and the radiolabeled receptors were purified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Radiolabeled glycopeptides were prepared from the purified receptor by proteolysis, and their structures were examined by a variety of techniques. The mature EGF receptor contains both complex-type and high mannose-type Asn-linked oligosaccharides in the approximate ratio of 2 to 1, while the precursor contains only high mannose-type chains. A number of experimental results demonstrate that the mature receptor does not contain oligosaccharides in O-linkage through N-acetylgalactosamine to either serine or threonine. The high mannose-type oligosaccharides in both precursor and mature receptor can be cleaved by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H and occur in the mature receptor as Man9GlcNAc2 (6%), Man8GlcNAc2 (49%), Man7GlcNAc2 (25%), and Man6GlcNAc2 (20%), whereas, in the receptor precursor the high mannose chains occur primarily as Man8GlcNAc2 (70%). The complex-type oligosaccharides in the mature receptor are predominantly tri- or tetraantennary species and are unusual in several respects. (i) Many of the chains do not contain sialic acid, while the remaining chains contain 1-2 sialic acid residues. (ii) Half of the [3H] mannose-derived radioactivity was recovered as [3H] fucose and the remaining half as [3H] mannose, indicating that there may be an average of 3 fucose residues/chain. (iii) About one-third of the [3H] glucosamine-derived radioactivity in these glycopeptides was recovered as N-acetylgalactosamine and these residues are all alpha-linked and occur at the nonreducing termini. These data demonstrate that the complex-type Asn-linked oligosaccharides in the EGF receptor from A-431 cells contain sugar residues related to human blood type A. In light of other recent studies, these results suggest that in A-431 cells blood group determinants in surface glycoproteins are contained in Asn-linked but not O-linked oligosaccharides.
The sequence of N-linked oligosaccharides of differentially glycosylated murine I-Ak alpha-(alpha 2- and alpha 3-) and beta-chains was determined. I-Ak beta-chains predominantly bear a biantennary complex oligosaccharide with a core fucose, and with the peripheral sequence SA----Gal----GlcNAc----Man. The I-Ak alpha-chain has two N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn-82 and Asn-122. When Lubrol-insoluble alpha 3-chains are examined they are found to bear high-mannose oligosaccharides of either the Man9GlcNAc2 or Man8GlcNAc2 type at both sites. When Lubrol-soluble alpha 2-chains are examined, in about 85% of the molecules the Asn-82 site bears a biantennary complex oligosaccharide with core fucose, and with the peripheral sequence SA----Gal----GlcNAc----Man. Interestingly, the Asn-122 site bears a variety of structures. In about 50% of the molecules, the structure at Asn-122 is a biantennary complex oligosaccharide without core fucose and with the peripheral sequence SA----Gal----GlcNAc----Man. In addition, it can bear other complex structures which we did not define further. The apparently restricted addition of fucose to the oligosaccharide at the alpha-Asn-82 site, even when both alpha-sites bear biantennary complex structures with the same peripheral sequence, is a feature unique to this system. The unusual variety of structures present at the alpha-Asn-122 site may indicate differential processing in different cell types.
The occurrence and distribution of the repeating disaccharide [Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,3] in the different types of Asn-linked oligosaccharides in mouse lymphoma BW5147 cells have been studied. Glycopeptides were prepared from cells grown in medium containing [6-3H]galactose, and the bi-, tri-, and tetraantennary Asn-linked oligosaccharides were fractionated by serial lectin affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, pea lectin -Sepharose, leukoagglutinating phytohemagglutinin-agarose, and Datura stramonium agglutinin-agarose. As described in this report, the latter lectin binds glycopeptides that contain either the repeating N-acetyllactosamine sequence or an outer mannose residue substituted at C-2 and C-6 by N-acetyllactosamine. The isolated glycopeptides were subjected to methylation analysis, specific exoglycosidase treatments, and digestion with Escherichia freundii endo-beta-galactosidase. Our data indicate that approximately two-thirds of the tetraantennary and one-half of the triantennary Asn-linked oligosaccharides contain repeating N-acetyllactosamine sequences in at least one branch. Many of the repeating sequences contain an additional galactose residue linked alpha 1,3 to a penultimate galactose residue. By contrast, less than 10% of the biantennary oligosaccharides contain the repeating disaccharide. The distribution of the repeating N-acetyllactosamine unit was also examined in a cell line ( PHAR 2.1) that is deficient in UDP-GlcNAc:alpha-mannoside beta 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. These cells are unable to synthesize tetraantennary and certain triantennary species and instead accumulate biantennary oligosaccharides. The total content of repeating N-acetyllactosamine units is greatly decreased in this line, and those that are present are found predominantly in triantennary Asn-linked oligosaccharides. These results demonstrate that the repeating N-acetyllactosamine sequence occurs commonly in complex-type Asn-linked oligosaccharides in BW5147 cells but is confined primarily to tri- and teraantennary species.
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an abundant protein of the crystalloid endoplasmic reticulum of UT-1 cells, a line of cultured hamster cells that over-produces the reductase as a result of gene amplification. In the current studies, we show that reductase in UT-1 cells is a glycoprotein. The solubilized enzyme (Mr = 97,000) from UT-1 cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and rat liver was adsorbed quantitatively and specifically to concanavalin A-Sepharose. UT-1 cells incorporated [1,6-3H]glucosamine into the reductase; after release with endo-N-acetylglucosaminidase H most of the radioactivity was found in N-linked "high-mannose" chains, including Man6(GlcNAc)2, Man7(GlcNAc)2, and Man8(GlcNAc)2. The carbohydrate of the reductase was localized to a 30- to 35-kilodalton fragment that was separable proteolytically from a cytoplasmic 53-kilodalton fragment that contained the active site of the enzyme. We conclude that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an active site facing the cytoplasm and a carbohydrate-bearing site oriented toward the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
In human fibroblasts, the receptor for low density lipoprotein (LDL) is synthesized as a precursor of apparent Mr = 120,000 which is converted to a mature form of apparent Mr = 160,000, as determined by migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels (Tolleshaug, H., Goldstein, J. L., Schneider, W. J., and Brown, M. S. (1982) Cell 30, 715-724). The current paper describes the relationship of N- and O-glycosylation to this post-translational modification. Oligosaccharides were analyzed from precursor and mature forms of LDL receptors that had been immunoprecipitated from cells grown in media containing radioactive sugars. In human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells, the receptor precursor appears to contain one N-linked high mannose oligosaccharide and approximately 6-9 N-acetylgalactosamine residues linked O-glycosidically to Ser/Thr residues. In the mature receptor, the O-linked oligosaccharides are mono- and disialylated species having the core structure of galactose leads to N-acetylgalactosamine leads to Ser/Thr. The single N-linked oligosaccharide of the mature receptor can either be a tri- or tetraantennary complex-type species. Similar results were obtained with normal human fibroblast receptor except that the O-linked oligosaccharides on the precursor are neutral disaccharides, of which one component is GalNAc and the N-linked complex type unit on the mature receptor is less branched. Since the addition of GalNAc residues to Ser/Thr residues precedes the conversion of N-linked high mannose-type oligosaccharides to complex-type structures, the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine must occur prior to the entry of glycoproteins into the region of the Golgi containing the processing enzyme alpha-mannosidase I. We also studied the receptor from tunicamycin-treated cells and after treatment with neuraminidase. In addition, we analyzed the receptor synthesized by a lectin-resistant clone of Chinese hamster ovary cells that is deficient in adding galactose residues to both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. These studies suggest that the apparent differences in molecular weight between the precursor and mature forms of the LDL receptor are largely, if not entirely, due to the addition of sialic acid and galactose residues to the O-linked GalNAc residues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Murine Ia antigens consist of two glycosylated polypeptide chains, the alpha chain and the beta chain. We have used lectin affinity chromatography to confirm previous work in our laboratory that three distinct, differentially glycosylated I-Ak alpha chains (alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3) exist and to compare the carbohydrate of the alpha chain with that of the beta chain. Glycopeptides derived from pronase digestion of [3H]mannose-labeled I-Ak alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and beta chains were sequentially passed over columns of immobilized concanavalin A, Lens culinaris lectin, phytohemagglutinin-E, and phytohemagglutinin-L in a prescribed manner to generate a lectin affinity profile, which, in turn, allowed assignment of a minimal oligosaccharide structure for each glycopeptide studied. The lectin affinity profile for each chain was unique. The alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta chains each possess complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides, although the branching pattern and specific sugar residues found on each differ. The alpha 3 chain, on the other hand, possesses predominantly high mannose or hybrid-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Lectin affinity analysis of glycopeptides derived from pronase digestion of high pressure liquid chromatography-isolated tryptic-chymotryptic fragments from alpha 2 and alpha 3 and tryptic fragments from beta revealed that specific minimal oligosaccharide structures were associated with particular fragments. In addition, although tryptic-chymotryptic peptide maps of alpha 2 and alpha 3 were similar, alpha 2 fragments bear predominantly complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides, whereas homologous alpha 3 fragments bear high mannose or hybrid-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Possible explanations of the oligosaccharide heterogeneity are discussed.
The carbohydrate binding specificities of the leukoagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (L-PHA) and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (E-PHA) lectins of the red kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, have been investigated by lectin-agarose affinity chromatography of Asn-linked oligosaccharides. High affinity binding to E-PHA-agarose occurs only with biantennary glycopeptides containing 2 outer galactose residues and a residue of N-acetylglucosamine linked beta 1,4 to the beta-linked mannose residue in the core. This species is not retarded on L-PHA-agarose. In contrast, tri- and tetraanternnary glycopeptides containing outer galactose residues and an alpha-linked mannose residue substituted at positions C-2 and C-6 are specifically retarded on L-PHA-agarose. Triantennary glycopeptides containing outer galactose residues and an alpha-linked mannose residue substituted at positions C-2 and C-4 are not retarded on L-PHA-agarose. Additionally, the presence of outer sialic acid residues or a core fucose residue does not influence the behavior of complex glycopeptides on either of these lectin-agarose conjugates. This ability of E-PHA and L-PHA to discriminate between Asn-linked oligosaccharides with various branching patterns can be utilized in the fractionation of these glycopeptides (see paper following).
Upon incubation with uridine diphosphate-[14C]glucuronic acid, membrane fractions from adult and phenobarbital-induced embryonic liver synthesize a single glucuronide, which is soluble in chloroform:methanol (2:1). The compound is completely hydrolyzed and glucuronic acid released by either mild acid or beta-glucuronidase, whereas mild base hydrolysis results in a mixture of glucuronic acid and glucuronic acid-1,2-cyclic phosphate. These data and the behavior of the lipid-linked glucuronide on DEAE-cellulose chromatography indicate that the compound contains a monophosphate diester of glucuronic acid, which is beta-linked to a lipid. The synthesis of the lipid-linked glucuronide in uninduced normal embryonic liver is very low (5-15 pmol product/mg/5 min) at all developmental ages up to hatching, but the introduction of phenobarbital into the air space of a 9-10-day-old embryo causes a premature increase of activity (75-150 pmol products/mg/5 min) within 7 days. The glucuronyltransferase in adult and induced embryonic liver has a Km for UDPGlcUA of 0.17 x 10(-3) M and a broad pH optimum between pH 6 and 7. Glucuronic acid is released from the lipid-linked glucuronide by a beta-glucuronidase in liver that is active at neutral pH and is not inhibited by saccharolactone. This glycosidase activity appears, therefore, to be distinct from the previously characterized lysosomal beta-glucuronidase. Fractionation of adult chicken liver membranes by differential centrifugation indicates that over 70% of the glucuronyltransferase is associated with the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions. The endogenous beta-glucuronidase capable of hydrolyzing the lipid-linked glucuronide was not separated from the glucuronyl-transferase activity during fractionation. The data available suggests that the lipid-linked glucuronide is involved directly in the generation of free glucuronic acid for further metabolism.
We present a general technique for fractionating cell-derived asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the basis of oligosaccharide structure. This procedure has been applied to the study of [2-3H]mannose-labeled mouse lymphoma cells (BW5147). The fractionation scheme involves serial chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, pea lectin-Sepharose, and leukoagglutinating phytohemagglutinin-agarose. Approximately 85% of the labeled glycopeptides was retained on one or more of the affinity columns. The various fractions eluted from the columns contain relatively pure populations of glycopeptides which were used for structural analysis. The recovery of the glycopeptides was quantitative. The procedure was used to estimate the overall spectrum of Asn-linked oligosaccharides synthesized by the lymphoma cell line. We conclude that serial lectin-agarose affinity chromatography is a rapid, sensitive, and specific technique for fractionating and analyzing Asn-linked oligosaccharides. A general fractionation scheme employing additional lectins is presented.
A galactosyltransferase that transfers galactose from UDPgalactose to asialoagalacto fetuin or N-acetylglucosamine was partly purified from two commerical preparations of fetuin and its kinetic properties were characterized. Several other preparations of fetuin were also found to contain galactosyltransferase activity.