Development of glycan microarray technologies have recently revealed many new features in the binding specificities of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) including animal and plant lectins, antibodies, toxins, and pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Printed glycan microarrays are very sensitive, robust, and require very small quantities of glycans and GBPs. However, glycan arrays have been limited mostly to chemoenzymatically synthesized oligosaccharides and N-glycans isolated from natural glycoproteins. O-Glycans and more complex glycoconjugates, such as glycopeptides or whole cells, are generally lacking from most types of glycan microarrays. Certain GBPs such as selectins, that have more complex binding specificity, require peptide components besides the glycan structure for high-affinity binding to the ligand. GBP binding assays on glycan microarrays will provide only partial information about the specificity and high-affinity ligands for those GBPs. Therefore, more "natural" glycoconjugate arrays are required to study more complex GBP-glycoconjugate interactions. We have utilized a simple fluorescence-based solid-phase assay on a microplate format to study GBP-glycoconjugate interactions. The method utilizes commercial streptavidin-coated microplates, where various biotinylated ligands, such as glycopeptides, oligosaccharides, and whole cells, can be immobilized at a defined density. The binding of GBPs to immobilized ligands can be studied using fluorescently labeled GBPs or cells, or bound GBPs can be detected using fluorescently labeled anti-GBP antibodies. Our approach utilizing biotinylated and fixed cells in a solid-phase assay is a versatile method to study binding of GBPs to natural cell-surface glycoconjugates. Not only mammalian cells, but also microorganisms can be biotinylated and fixed, and adhesion of fluorescently labeled GBPs and antibodies to immobilized cells can be studied using standard streptavidin-coated microplates. Here, we present examples of fluorescence-based solid-phase assays to study P- and L-selectin and galectin-1 binding to immobilized glycopeptides, oligosaccharides, and cells. It should be noted that with the availability of complex glycoconjugates containing available primary amine groups, such as semisynthetic glycopeptides described here, that these could also be printed on covalent microarrays for interrogation by GBPs.
Interaction of SIRPα with its ligand, CD47, regulates leukocyte functions, including transmigration, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and cytokine secretion. Recent progress has provided significant insights into the structural details of the distal IgV domain (D1) of SIRPα. However, the structural roles of proximal IgC domains (D2 and D3) have been largely unstudied. The high degree of conservation of D2 and D3 among members of the SIRP family as well as the propensity of known IgC domains to assemble in cis has led others to hypothesize that SIRPα forms higher order structures on the cell surface. Here we report that SIRPα forms noncovalently linked cis homodimers. Treatment of SIRPα-expressing cells with a membrane-impermeable cross-linker resulted in the formation of SDS-stable SIRPα dimers and oligomers. Biochemical analyses of soluble recombinant extracellular regions of SIRPα, including domain truncation mutants, revealed that each of the three extracellular immunoglobulin loops of SIRPα formed dimers in solution. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments using cells transfected with different affinity-tagged SIRPα molecules revealed that SIRPα forms cis dimers. Interestingly, in cells treated with tunicamycin, SIRPα dimerization but not CD47 binding was inhibited, suggesting that a SIRPα dimer is probably bivalent. Last, we demonstrate robust dimerization of SIRPa in adherent, stimulated human neutrophils. Collectively, these data are consistent with SIRPα being expressed on the cell surface as a functional cis-linked dimer.
Microarrays of defined glycans represent a high throughput approach to determining the specificity of lectins, or more generally glycan-binding proteins (GBPs). The utility of a glycan microarray is directly related to the number and variety of the glycans available on the printed surface for interrogation by GBPs. The Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG), funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), has generated a glycan microarray available to the public as an investigator-driven resource, where hundreds of GBPs have been analyzed. Here we describe the methods generally used by the CFG to prepare glycan arrays and interrogate them with GBPs. We also describe our new approach to normalizing glycan microarray data derived from concentration-dependent analyses of GBP binding, and the application of this approach with the plant lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA-I) and human galectin-8. The use of glycan microarrays with this approach readily generates a prediction of the glycan determinants required for high affinity binding by a GBP.
Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells in humans and play a vital role in several aspects of the immune response. Numerous reports have implicated neutrophil glycosylation as an important factor in mediating these interactions. We report here the application of high sensitivity glycomics methodologies, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI-TOF) and MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses, to the structural analysis of N- and O-linked carbohydrates released from two samples of neutrophils, prepared by two separate and geographically remote laboratories. The data produced demonstrates that the cells display a diverse range of sialylated and fucosylated complex glycans, with a high level of similarity between the two preparations.
Cells normally undergo physiological turnover through the induction of apoptosis and phagocytic removal, partly through exposure of cell surface phosphatidylserine (PS). In contrast, neutrophils appear to possess apoptosis-independent mechanisms of removal. Here we show that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) induces PS exposure independent of alterations in mitochondrial potential, caspase activation, or cell death. Furthermore, Gal-1-induced PS exposure reverts after Gal-1 removal without altering cell viability. Gal-1-induced PS exposure is uniquely microdomain restricted, yet cells exposing PS do not display evident alterations in membrane morphology nor do they exhibit bleb formation, typically seen in apoptotic cells. Long-term exposure to Gal-1 prolongs PS exposure with no alteration in cell cycle progression or cell growth. These results demonstrate that Gal-1-induced PS exposure and subsequent phagocytic removal of living cells represents a new paradigm in cellular turnover.
Endothelial sialomucin CD34 functions as an L-selectin ligand mediating lymphocyte extravasation only when properly glycosylated to express a sulfated carbohydrate epitope, 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis x (6-sulfo SLe(x)). It is thought that multivalent 6-sulfo SLe(x) expression promotes high-affinity binding to L-selectin by enhancing avidity. However, the reported low amount of 6-sulfo SLe(x) in total human CD34 is inconsistent with this model and prompted us to re-evaluate CD34 glycosylation. We separated CD34 into 2 glycoforms, the L-selectin-binding and nonbinding glycoforms, L-B-CD34 and L-NB-CD34, respectively, and analyzed released O- and N-glycans from both forms. L-B-CD34 is relatively minor compared with L-NB-CD34 and represented less than 10% of total tonsillar CD34. MECA-79, a mAb to sulfated core-1 O-glycans, bound exclusively to L-B-CD34 and this form contained all sulfated and fucosylated O-glycans. 6-Sulfo SLe(x) epitopes occur on core-2 and extended core-1 O-glycans with approximately 20% of total L-B-CD34 O-glycans expressing 6-sulfo SLe(x). N-glycans containing potential 6-sulfo SLe(x) epitopes were also present in L-B-CD34, but their removal did not abolish binding to L-selectin. Thus, a minor glycoform of CD34 carries relatively abundant 6-sulfo SLe(x) epitopes on O-glycans that are important for its recognition by L-selectin.
BACKGROUND: Specificities for carbohydrate IgG antibodies, thought to be predominantly of the IgG2 subclass, have never been broadly examined in healthy human subjects.
OBJECTIVE: To examine commercial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations for their ability to recognize a wide range of glycans and to determine the contribution of IgG2 to the binding pattern observed.
METHODS: We used a glycan microarray to evaluate IVIG preparations and a control mix of similar proportions of human myeloma IgG1 and IgG2 for binding to 377 glycans, courtesy of the Consortium for Functional Glycomics Core H. Glycans recognized were categorized using public databases for their likely cellular sources. IgG2 was depleted from IVIG by using immunoaffinity chromatography, and depletion was confirmed by using nephelometry and surface plasmon resonance.
RESULTS: Nearly half of the glycans bound IgG. Some of the glycans with the greatest antibody binding can be found in structures of human pathogenic bacteria (eg, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Vibrio cholera) and nonpathogenic bacteria, including LPS and lipoteichoic acid, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Surprisingly, depletion of IgG2 had only a modest effect on anticarbohydrate recognition patterns compared with the starting IVIG preparation. Little to no binding activity was detected to human endogenous glycans, including tumor-associated antigens.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel, comprehensive analysis provides evidence that IVIG contains a much wider range than previously appreciated of anticarbohydrate IgG antibodies, including those recognizing both pathogenic and non-pathogen-associated prokaryotic glycans.
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) regulates leukocyte turnover by inducing the cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), a ligand that targets cells for phagocytic removal, in the absence of apoptosis. Gal-1 monomer-dimer equilibrium appears to modulate Gal-1-induced PS exposure, although the mechanism underlying this regulation remains unclear. Here we show that monomer-dimer equilibrium regulates Gal-1 sensitivity to oxidation. A mutant form of Gal-1, containing C2S and V5D mutations (mGal-1), exhibits impaired dimerization and fails to induce cell surface PS exposure while retaining the ability to recognize carbohydrates and signal Ca(2+) flux in leukocytes. mGal-1 also displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidation, whereas ligand, which partially protected Gal-1 from oxidation, enhanced Gal-1 dimerization. Continual incubation of leukocytes with Gal-1 resulted in gradual oxidative inactivation with concomitant loss of cell surface PS, whereas rapid oxidation prevented mGal-1 from inducing PS exposure. Stabilization of Gal-1 or mGal-1 with iodoacetamide fully protected Gal-1 and mGal-1 from oxidation. Alkylation-induced stabilization allowed Gal-1 to signal sustained PS exposure in leukocytes and mGal-1 to signal both Ca(2+) flux and PS exposure. Taken together, these results demonstrate that monomer-dimer equilibrium regulates Gal-1 sensitivity to oxidative inactivation and provides a mechanism whereby ligand partially protects Gal-1 from oxidation.
E-, P- and L-selectins critically function in lymphocyte recirculation and recruiting leukocytes to inflammatory sites. MECA-79 antibody inhibits L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion in several species and does not require sialic acid in its epitope. Many other antibodies, however, recognize human selectin ligands expressing N-acetylneuraminic acid but not mouse selectin ligands expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid, suggesting that difference in sialic acid in sialyl Lewis X leads to differential reactivity. We found that HECA-452 and FH6 monoclonal antibodies bind Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing N-acetylneuraminyl Lewis X oligosaccharide but not its N-glycolyl form. Moreover, synthetic N-acetylneuraminyl Lewis X oligosaccharide but not its N-glycolyl oligosaccharide inhibited HECA-452 and FH6 binding. By contrast, E-, P- and L-selectin bound to CHO cells regardless of whether they express N-acetyl or N-glycolyl form of sialyl Lewis X, showing that selectins have a broader recognition capacity than HECA-452 and FH-6 anti-sialyl Lewis x antibodies.
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are widely expressed galectins with immunoregulatory functions in animals. To explore their glycan specificity, we developed microarrays of naturally occurring glycans using a bifunctional fluorescent linker, 2-amino-N-(2-aminoethyl)-benzamide (AEAB), directly conjugated through its arylamine group by reductive amination to free glycans to form glycan-AEABs (GAEABs). Glycans from natural sources were used to prepare over 200 GAEABs, which were purified by multidimensional high-pressure liquid chromatography and covalently immobilized onto N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated glass slides via their free alkylamine. Fluorescence-based screening demonstrated that Gal-1 recognizes a wide variety of complex N-glycans, whereas Gal-3 primarily recognizes poly-N-acetyllactosamine-containing glycans independent of N-glycan presentation. GAEABs provide a general solution to glycan microarray preparation from natural sources for defining the specificity of glycan-binding proteins.
Mucin-type protein O-glycosylation is initiated by the addition of alpha-GalNAc to Ser/Thr residues of a polypeptide chain. The addition of beta-Gal to GalNAc by the UDP-Gal:glycoprotein-alpha-GalNAc beta 3 galactosyltransferase (T-synthase), forming the Core 1 structure (beta-Gal(1-3)-alpha-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr), is a common and biologically significant subsequent step in O-glycan biosynthesis. What dictates the sites of Core 1 glycosylation is poorly understood; however, the peptide sequence and neighboring glycosylation effects have been implicated. To systematically address the role of the peptide sequence on the specificity of T-synthase, we used the oriented random glycopeptide: GAGAXXXX(T-O-GalNAc)XXXXAGAG (where X = G, A, P, V, I, F, Y, S, N, D, E, H, R, and K) as a substrate. The Core 1 glycosylated product was isolated on immobilized PNA (Arachis hypogaea) lectin and its composition determined by Edman amino acid sequencing for comparison with the initial substrate composition, from which transferase preferences were obtained. From these studies, elevated preferences for Gly at the +1 position with moderately high preferences for Phe and Tyr in the +3 position relative to the acceptor Thr-O-GalNAc were found. A number of smaller Pro enhancements were also observed. Basic residues, i.e., Lys, Arg, and His, in any position were disfavored, suggesting electrostatic interactions as an additional important component modulating transferase specificity. This work suggests that there are indeed subtle specific and nonspecific protein-targeting sequence motifs for this transferase.
The 300-kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), which contains multiple mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) binding sites that map to domains 3, 5, and 9 within its 15-domain extracytoplasmic region, functions as an efficient carrier of Man-6-P-containing lysosomal enzymes. To determine the types of phosphorylated N-glycans recognized by each of the three carbohydrate binding sites of the CI-MPR, a phosphorylated glycan microarray was probed with truncated forms of the CI-MPR. Surface plasmon resonance analyses using lysosomal enzymes with defined N-glycans were performed to evaluate whether multiple domains are needed to form a stable, high affinity carbohydrate binding pocket. Like domain 3, adjacent domains increase the affinity of domain 5 for phosphomannosyl residues, with domain 5 exhibiting approximately 60-fold higher affinity for lysosomal enzymes containing the phosphodiester Man-P-GlcNAc when in the context of a construct encoding domains 5-9. In contrast, domain 9 does not require additional domains for high affinity binding. The three sites differ in their glycan specificity, with only domain 5 being capable of recognizing Man-P-GlcNAc. In addition, domain 9, unlike domains 1-3, interacts with Man(8)GlcNAc(2) and Man(9)GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharides containing a single phosphomonoester. Together, these data indicate that the assembly of three unique carbohydrate binding sites allows the CI-MPR to interact with the structurally diverse phosphorylated N-glycans it encounters on newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes.
A facile preparation of neoglycoconjugates has been developed with a commercially available chemical, p-nitrophenyl anthranilate (PNPA), as a heterobifunctional linker. The two functional groups of PNPA, the aromatic amine and the p-nitrophenyl ester, are fully differentiated to selectively conjugate with glycans and other biomolecules containing nucleophiles. PNPA is efficiently conjugated with free reducing glycans via reductive amination. The glycan-PNPA conjugates (GPNPAs) can be easily purified and quantified by UV absorption. The active p-nitrophenyl ester in the GPNPA conjugates readily reacts with amines under mild conditions, and the resulting conjugates acquire strong fluorescence. This approach was used to prepare several fluorescent neoglycoproteins. The neoglycoproteins were covalently printed on activated glass slides and were bound by appropriate lectins recognizing the glycans.
A novel strategy for creating naturally derived glycan microarrays has been developed. Glycosylamines are prepared from free reducing glycans and stabilized by reaction with acryloyl chloride to generate a glycosylamide in which the reducing monosaccharide has a closed-ring structure. Ozonolysis of the protected glycan yields an active aldehyde, to which a bifunctional fluorescent linker is coupled by reductive amination. The fluorescent derivatives are easily coupled through a residual primary alkylamine to generate glycan microarrays. This strategy preserves structural features of glycans required for antibody recognition and allows development of natural arrays of fluorescent glycans in which the cyclic pyranose structure of the reducing-end sugar residue is retained.
Glycan microarray technology has become a successful tool for studying protein-carbohydrate interactions, but a limitation has been the laborious synthesis of glycan structures by enzymatic and chemical methods. Here we describe a new method to generate quantifiable glycan libraries from natural sources by combining widely used protease digestion of glycoproteins and Fmoc chemistry. Glycoproteins including chicken ovalbumin, bovine fetuin, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were digested by Pronase, protected by FmocCl, and efficiently separated by 2D-HPLC. We show that glycans from HRP glycopeptides separated by HPLC and fluorescence monitoring retained their natural reducing end structures, mostly core alpha1,3-fucose and core alpha1,2-xylose. After simple Fmoc deprotection, the glycans were printed on NHS-activated glass slides. The glycans were interrogated using plant lectins and antibodies in sera from mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni, which revealed the presence of both IgM and IgG antibody responses to HRP glycopeptides. This simple approach to glycopeptide purification and conjugation allows for the development of natural glycopeptide microarrays without the need to remove and derivatize glycans and potentially compromise their reducing end determinants.
The specificity of the cation-independent and -dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptors (CI-MPR and CD-MPR) for high mannose-type N-glycans of defined structure containing zero, one, or two Man-P-GlcNAc phosphodiester or Man-6-P phosphomonoester residues was determined by analysis on a phosphorylated glycan microarray. Amine-activated glycans were covalently printed on N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated glass slides and interrogated with different concentrations of recombinant CD-MPR or soluble CI-MPR. Neither receptor bound to non-phosphorylated glycans. The CD-MPR bound weakly or undetectably to the phosphodiester derivatives, but strongly to the phosphomonoester-containing glycans with the exception of a single Man7GlcNAc2-R isomer that contained a single Man-6-P residue. By contrast, the CI-MPR bound with high affinity to glycans containing either phospho-mono- or -diesters although, like the CD-MPR, it differentially recognized isomers of phosphorylated Man7GlcNAc2-R. This differential recognition of phosphorylated glycans by the CI- and CD-MPRs has implications for understanding the biosynthesis and targeting of lysosomal hydrolases.
Many diseases and disorders are characterized by quantitative and/or qualitative changes in complex carbohydrates. Mass spectrometry methods show promise in monitoring and detecting these important biological changes. Here we report a new glycomics method, termed glycan reductive isotope labeling (GRIL), where free glycans are derivatized by reductive amination with the differentially coded stable isotope tags [(12)C(6)]aniline and [(13)C(6)]aniline. These dual-labeled aniline-tagged glycans can be recovered by reverse-phase chromatography and can be quantified based on ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and relative ion abundances. Unlike previously reported isotopically coded reagents for glycans, GRIL does not contain deuterium, which can be chromatographically resolved. Our method shows no chromatographic resolution of differentially labeled glycans. Mixtures of differentially tagged glycans can be directly compared and quantified using mass spectrometric techniques. We demonstrate the use of GRIL to determine relative differences in glycan amount and composition. We analyze free glycans and glycans enzymatically or chemically released from a variety of standard glycoproteins, as well as human and mouse serum glycoproteins, using this method. This technique allows linear relative quantitation of glycans over a 10-fold concentration range and can accurately quantify sub-picomole levels of released glycans, providing a needed advancement in the field of glycomics.
The number of glycan determinants that comprise the human glycome is not known. This uncertainty arises from limited knowledge of the total number of distinct glycans and glycan structures in the human glycome, as well as limited information about the glycan determinants recognized by glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), which include lectins, receptors, toxins, microbial adhesins, antibodies, and enzymes. Available evidence indicates that GBP binding sites may accommodate glycan determinants made up of 2 to 6 linear monosaccharides, together with their potential side chains containing other sugars and modifications, such as sulfation, phosphorylation, and acetylation. Glycosaminoglycans, including heparin and heparan sulfate, comprise repeating disaccharide motifs, where a linear sequence of 5 to 6 monosaccharides may be required for recognition. Based on our current knowledge of the composition of the glycome and the size of GBP binding sites, glycoproteins and glycolipids may contain approximately 3000 glycan determinants with an additional approximately 4000 theoretical pentasaccharide sequences in glycosaminoglycans. These numbers provide an achievable target for new chemical and/or enzymatic syntheses, and raise new challenges for defining the total glycome and the determinants recognized by GBPs.
The glycan symbol nomenclature proposed by Harvey et al. in these pages has relative advantages and disadvantages. The use of symbols to depict glycans originated from Kornfeld in 1978, was systematized in the First Edition of "Essentials of Glycobiology" and updated for the second edition, with input from relevant organizations such as the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. We also note that >200 illustrations in the second edition have already been published using our nomenclature and are available for download at PubMed.
Human galectins have functionally divergent roles, although most of the members of the galectin family bind weakly to the simple disaccharide lactose (Galbeta1-4Glc). To assess the specificity of galectin-glycan interactions in more detail, we explored the binding of several important galectins (Gal-1, Gal-2, and Gal-3) using a dose-response approach toward a glycan microarray containing hundreds of structurally diverse glycans, and we compared these results to binding determinants on cells. All three galectins exhibited differences in glycan binding characteristics. On both the microarray and on cells, Gal-2 and Gal-3 exhibited higher binding than Gal-1 to fucose-containing A and B blood group antigens. Gal-2 exhibited significantly reduced binding to all sialylated glycans, whereas Gal-1 bound alpha2-3- but not alpha2-6-sialylated glycans, and Gal-3 bound to some glycans terminating in either alpha2-3- or alpha2-6-sialic acid. The effects of sialylation on Gal-1, Gal-2, and Gal-3 binding to cells also reflected differences in cellular sensitivity to Gal-1-, Gal-2-, and Gal-3-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. Each galectin exhibited higher binding for glycans with poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly(LacNAc)) sequences (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc)(n) when compared with N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) glycans (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc). However, only Gal-3 bound internal LacNAc within poly(LacNAc). These results demonstrate that each of these galectins mechanistically differ in their binding to glycans on the microarrays and that these differences are reflected in the determinants required for cell binding and signaling. The specific glycan recognition by each galectin underscores the basis for differences in their biological activities.