P-selectin binds to the N-terminal region of human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). For optimal binding, this region requires sulfation on 3 tyrosines and specific core-2 O-glycosylation on a threonine. P-selectin is also thought to bind to the N terminus of murine PSGL-1, although it has a very different amino acid sequence than human PSGL-1. Murine PSGL-1 has potential sites for sulfation at Tyr13 and Tyr15 and for O-glycosylation at Thr14 and Thr17. We expressed murine PSGL-1 or constructs with substitutions of these residues in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells that coexpressed the glycosyltransferases required for binding to P-selectin. The cells were assayed for binding to fluid-phase P-selectin and for tethering and rolling on P-selectin under flow. In both assays, substitution of Tyr13 or Thr17 markedly diminished, but did not eliminate, binding to P-selectin. In contrast, substitution of Tyr15 or Thr14 did not affect binding. Substitution of all 4 residues eliminated binding. Treatment of cells with chlorate, an inhibitor of sulfation, markedly reduced binding of wild-type PSGL-1 to P-selectin but did not further decrease binding of PSGL-1 with substitutions of both tyrosines. These data suggest that sulfation of Tyr13 and O-glycosylation of Thr17 are necessary for murine PSGL-1 to bind optimally to P-selectin. Because it uses only one tyrosine, murine PSGL-1 may rely more on other peptide components and O-glycosylation to bind to P-selectin than does human PSGL-1.
Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEAs) are crucially involved in modulating the host immune response to infection by S. mansoni. We report that human dendritic cells bind SEAs through the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN). Monoclonal antibodies against the carbohydrate antigens Lewisx (Lex) and GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (LDNF) inhibit binding of DC-SIGN to SEAs, suggesting that these glycan antigens may be critically involved in binding. In a solid-phase adhesion assay, DC-SIGN-Fc binds polyvalent neoglycoconjugates that contain the Lex antigen, whereas no binding was observed to Galbeta1-4GlcNAc, and binding to neoglycoconjugates containing only alpha-fucose or oligosaccharides with a terminal alpha1-2-linked fucose is low. These data indicate that binding of DC-SIGN to Lex antigen is fucose-dependent and that adjacent monosaccharides and/or the anomeric linkage of the fucose are important for binding activity. Previous studies have shown that DC-SIGN binds HIV gp120 that contains high-mannose-type N-glycans. Site-directed mutagenesis within the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of DC-SIGN demonstrates that amino acids E324 and E347 are involved in binding to HIV gp120, Lex, and SEAs. By contrast, mutation of amino acid Val351 abrogates binding to SEAs and Lex but not HIV gp120. These data suggest that DC-SIGN recognizes these ligands through different (but overlapping) regions within its CRD. Our data imply that DC-SIGN not only is a pathogen receptor for HIV gp120 but may also function in pathogen recognition by interaction with the carbohydrate antigens Lex and possibly LDNF, which are found on important human pathogens, such as schistosomes and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
We report that human galectin-1 (dGal-1), a small dimeric beta-galactoside-binding protein, induces phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, measured by Annexin V staining, on human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, T leukemic MOLT-4 cells, and fMet-Leu-Phe-activated, but not resting, human neutrophils. This effect of dGal-1 on HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells is enhanced by pretreatment of the cells with neuraminidase, but treatment of resting neutrophils with neuraminidase does not enhance their sensitivity to dGal-1. Although the induction of staining with Annexin V is often associated with apoptosis, the dGal-1-treated HL-60 cells, MOLT-4 cells, and activated neutrophils do not undergo apoptosis, and there is no detectable DNA fragmentation. HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells treated with dGal-1 continue to grow normally. By contrast, camptothecin-treated HL-60 cells, etoposide-treated MOLT-4 cells, and anti-Fas-treated neutrophils exhibit extensive DNA fragmentation and/or cell death. Lactose inhibits the dGal-1-induced effects, indicating that dGal-1-induced signaling requires binding to cell surface beta-galactosides. The dimeric form of Gal-1 is required for signaling, because a monomeric mutant form of Gal-1, termed mGal-1, binds to cells but does not cause these effects. Importantly, dGal-1, but not mGal-1, treatment of HL-60 cells and activated human neutrophils significantly promotes their phagocytosis by activated mouse macrophages. These dGal-1-induced effects are distinguishable from apoptosis, but like apoptotic agents, prepare cells for phagocytic removal. Such effects of dGal-1 may contribute to leukocyte homeostasis.
The major humoral immune responses in animals infected with Schistosoma mansoni are directed toward carbohydrate antigens. Among these antigens are complex-type N-glycans expressing LDN [GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-R], LDNF [GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc-R], and polymeric Lewis x (Lex) [Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc]n-R epitopes. We have now evaluated the potential of the three glycan antigens as targets for immune-mediated intervention of infections and serodiagnosis. A variety of approaches were employed, including ELISA, Western blot, immunohistology, and in vitro complement lysis assays, to determine the immunogenicity of the glycans in infected humans, their localization on the parasites and their efficacy as targets for parasite lysis. Our results show that S. mansoni-infected patients, with either intestinal or hepatosplenic disease, generate predominantly IgM, but also IgG and IgA, antibodies to LDN, LDNF, and Lex. However, immune responses to Lex are generally lower than responses to LDN and LDNF and less specific to schistosome infections. Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to LDN, LDNF, and Lex determinants show that the glycan antigens occur on multiple glycoproteins from cercariae, 3-h, 48-h, and lung stage schistosomula, as well as adults and eggs. Immunohistological studies demonstrate that LDN, LDNF, and Lex are expressed on the parasite surface at all stages of development in the vertebrate host. Importantly, a mAb to LDN in the presence of complement efficiently kills schistosomula in vitro, as demonstrated by flow-cytometric assays that quantify cytolysis by propidium iodide uptake into damaged parasites. These findings raise the possibility that LDN and LDNF may be targets for vaccination and/or serodiagnosis of chronic schistosomiasis in humans.
L-selectin expressed on leukocytes is involved in lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid organs and leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue. L-selectin binds to the sulfated sialyl Lewis x (6-sulfo-sLex) epitope present on O-glycans of various glycoproteins in high endothelial venules. In addition, L-selectin interacts with the dimeric mucin P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expressed on leukocytes. PSGL-1 lacks 6-sulfo-sLex but contains sulfated tyrosine residues (Tyr-SO3)at positions 46, 48, and 51 and sLex in a core 2-based O-glycan (C2-O-sLex) on Thr at position 57. The role of tyrosine sulfation and core 2 O-glycans in binding of PSGL-1 to L-selectin is not well defined. Here, we show that L-selectin binds to a glycosulfopeptide (GSP-6) modeled after the extreme N terminus of human PSGL-1, containing three Tyr-SO3 and a nearby Thr modified with C2-O-sLex. Leukocytes roll on immobilized GSP-6 in an L-selectin-dependent manner, and rolling is dependent on Tyr-SO3 and C2-O-sLex on GSP-6. The dissociation constant for binding of L-selectin to GSP-6, as measured by equilibrium gel filtration, is approximately 5 microm. Binding is dependent on Tyr-SO3 residues as well as the sialic acid and fucose residues of C2-O-sLex. Binding to an isomeric glycosulfopeptide containing three Tyr-SO3 residues and a core 1-based O-glycan expressing sLex was reduced by approximately 90%. All three Tyr-SO3 residues of GSP-6 are required for high affinity binding to L-selectin. Low affinity binding to mono- and disulfated GSPs is largely independent of the position of the Tyr-SO3 residues, except for some binding preference for an isomer sulfated on both Tyr-48 and -51. These results demonstrate that L-selectin binds with high affinity to the N-terminal region of PSGL-1 through cooperative interactions with three sulfated tyrosine residues and an appropriately positioned C2-O-sLex O-glycan.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, the second most common tick-borne disease in the United States. Mice are natural reservoirs for this bacterium and man is an inadvertent host. A phagocytophilum's tropism for human neutrophils is linked to neutrophil expression of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), as well as sialylated and alpha1,3-fucosylated glycans. To determine whether A phagocytophilum uses similar molecular features to infect murine neutrophils, we assessed in vitro bacterial binding to neutrophils from and infection burden in wild-type mice; mice lacking alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferases Fuc-TIV and Fuc-TVII; or mice lacking PSGL-1. Binding to Fuc-TIV-/-/Fuc-TVII-/- neutrophils and infection of Fuc-TIV-/-/Fuc-TVII-/- mice were significantly reduced relative to wild-type mice. A phagocytophilum binding to PSGL-1-/- neutrophils was modestly reduced, whereas sialidase treatment significantly decreased binding to both wild-type and PSGL-1-/- neutrophils. A phagocytophilum similarly infected PSGL-1-/- and wild-type mice in vivo. A phagocytophilum induced comparable levels of chemokines from wild-type and PSGL-1-/- neutrophils in vitro, while those induced from Fuc-TIV-/-/Fuc-TVII-/- neutrophils were appreciably reduced. Therefore, A phagocytophilum infection in mice, as in humans, requires sialylation and alpha1,3-fucosylation of neutrophils. However, murine infection does not require neutrophil PSGL-1 expression, which has important implications for understanding how A phagocytophilum binds and infects neutrophils.
To reveal the role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in the host immune response in helminth infections and allergenicity, we developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize glycan epitopes present on glycoconjugates from both helminths and plants. An IgM mAb (100-4G11-A) was selected from a panel of anti-glycan mAbs generated from Schistosoma-infected or immunized mice because it recognized both a plant glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase and phospholipase A2 from honeybee venom. On further characterization, it was shown that mAb 100-4G11-A recognizes the truncated biantennary N-glycan Man3GlcNAc2-R. Immunocytochemical analysis and immunoblotting with this mAb demonstrated that Man3GlcNAc2-R structures occur on many glycoproteins of schistosomes and other invertebrates. Remarkably, Man3GlcNAc2-R is also expressed on a restricted number of vertebrate glycoproteins. Our data indicate that this truncated N-glycan is immunogenic in mice during the course of infection. Nevertheless, no elevated antibody levels against this glycan epitope could be detected in sera of individuals infected with Schistosoma mansoni.
Colonization of neutrophils by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes the disease human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The pathogen also infects mice, its natural host. Like binding of P-selectin, binding of A. phagocytophilum to human neutrophils requires expression of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and alpha1-3-fucosyltransferases that construct the glycan determinant sialyl Lewis x (sLex). Binding of A. phagocytophilum to murine neutrophils, however, requires expression of alpha1-3-fucosyltransferases but not PSGL-1. To further characterize the molecular features that A. phagocytophilum recognizes, we measured bacterial binding to microspheres bearing specific glycoconjugates or to cells expressing human PSGL-1 and particular glycosyltransferases. Like P-selectin, A. phagocytophilum bound to purified human PSGL-1 and to glycopeptides modeled after the N terminus of human PSGL-1 that presented sLex on an O-glycan. Unlike P-selectin, A. phagocytophilum bound to glycopeptides that contained sLex but lacked tyrosine sulfation or a specific core-2 orientation of sLex on the O-glycan. A. phagocytophilum bound only to glycopeptides that contained a short amino acid sequence found in the N-terminal region of human but not murine PSGL-1. Unlike P-selectin, A. phagocytophilum bound to cells expressing PSGL-1 in cooperation with sLex on both N-and O-glycans. Moreover, bacteria bound to microspheres coupled independently with glycopeptide lacking sLex and with sLex lacking peptide. These results demonstrate that, unlike P-selectin, A. phagocytophilum binds cooperatively to a nonsulfated N-terminal peptide in human PSGL-1 and to sLex expressed on PSGL-1 or other glycoproteins. Distinct bacterial adhesins may mediate these cooperative interactions.
Lambs respond to vaccination against bacteria and viruses but have a poor immunological response to nematodes. Here we report that they are protected against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus after vaccination with excretory/secretory (ES) glycoproteins using Alhydrogel as an adjuvant. Lambs immunized with ES in Alhydrogel and challenged with 300 L3 larvae/kg body weight had a reduction in cumulative egg output of 89% and an increased percentage protection of 54% compared with the adjuvant control group. Compared to the adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide, Alhydrogel induced earlier onset and significantly higher ES- specific IgG, IgA, and IgE antibody responses. In all vaccinated groups a substantial proportion of the antibody response was directed against glycan epitopes, irrespective of the adjuvant used. In lambs vaccinated with ES in Alhydrogel but not in any other group a significant increase was found in antibody levels against the GalNAcbeta1,4 (Fucalpha1,3)GlcNAc (fucosylated LacdiNAc, LDNF) antigen, a carbohydrate antigen that is also involved in the host defense against the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. In lambs the LDNF-specific response increased from the first immunization onward and was significantly higher in protected lambs. In addition, an isotype switch from LDNF-specific IgM to IgG was induced that correlated with protection. These data demonstrate that hyporesponsiveness of lambs to H. contortus can be overcome by vaccination with ES glycoproteins in a strong T-helper 2 type response-inducing aluminum adjuvant. This combination generated high and specific antiglycan antibody responses that may contribute to the vaccination-induced protection.