Publications by Type: Journal Article

Olson LJ, Castonguay AC, Lasanajak Y, Peterson FC, Cummings RD, Smith DF, Dahms NM. Identification of a fourth mannose 6-phosphate binding site in the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Glycobiology. 2015;25 (6) :591-606.Abstract
The 300 kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) plays an essential role in lysosome biogenesis by targeting ∼ 60 different phosphomannosyl-containing acid hydrolases to the lysosome. This type I membrane glycoprotein has a large extracellular region comprised of 15 homologous domains. Two mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) binding sites have been mapped to domains 3 and 9, whereas domain 5 binds preferentially to the phosphodiester, M6P-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). A structure-based sequence alignment predicts that the C-terminal domain 15 contains three out of the four conserved residues identified as essential for carbohydrate recognition by domains 3, 5 and 9 of the CI-MPR, but lacks two cysteine residues that are predicted to form a disulfide bond. To determine whether domain 15 of the CI-MPR has lectin activity and to probe its carbohydrate-binding specificity, truncated forms of the CI-MPR were tested for binding to acid hydrolases with defined N-glycans in surface plasmon resonance analyses, and used to interrogate a phosphorylated glycan microarray. The results show that a construct encoding domains 14-15 binds both M6P and M6P-GlcNAc with similar affinity (Kd = 13 and 17 μM, respectively). Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrate the essential role of the conserved Tyr residue in domain 15 for phosphomannosyl binding. A structural model of domain 15 was generated that predicted an Arg residue to be in the binding pocket and mutagenesis studies confirmed its important role in carbohydrate binding. Together, these results show that the CI-MPR contains a fourth carbohydrate-recognition site capable of binding both phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters.
Stowell SR, Ju T, Cummings RD. Protein glycosylation in cancer. Annu Rev Pathol. 2015;10 :473-510.Abstract
Neoplastic transformation results in a wide variety of cellular alterations that impact the growth, survival, and general behavior of affected tissue. Although genetic alterations underpin the development of neoplastic disease, epigenetic changes can exert an equally significant effect on neoplastic transformation. Among neoplasia-associated epigenetic alterations, changes in cellular glycosylation have recently received attention as a key component of neoplastic progression. Alterations in glycosylation appear to not only directly impact cell growth and survival but also facilitate tumor-induced immunomodulation and eventual metastasis. Many of these changes may support neoplastic progression, and unique alterations in tumor-associated glycosylation may also serve as a distinct feature of cancer cells and therefore provide novel diagnostic and even therapeutic targets.
Javed MA, van Alphen LB, Sacher J, Ding W, Kelly J, Nargang C, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Szymanski CM. A receptor-binding protein of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage NCTC 12673 recognizes flagellin glycosylated with acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid. Mol Microbiol. 2015;95 (1) :101-15.Abstract
Bacteriophage receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) confer host specificity. We previously identified a putative RBP (Gp047) from the campylobacter lytic phage NCTC 12673 and demonstrated that Gp047 has a broader host range than its parent phage. While NCTC 12673 recognizes the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of a limited number of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, Gp047 binds to a majority of C. jejuni and related Campylobacter coli strains. In this study, we demonstrate that Gp047 also binds to acapsular mutants, suggesting that unlike the parent phage, CPS is not the receptor for Gp047. Affinity chromatography and far-western analyses of C. jejuni lysates using Gp047 followed by mass spectrometry indicated that Gp047 binds to the major flagellin protein, FlaA. Because C. jejuni flagellin is extensively glycosylated, we investigated this binding specificity further and demonstrate that Gp047 only recognizes flagellin decorated with acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid. This binding activity is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein and both wild-type and coccoid forms of C. jejuni are recognized. In addition, Gp047 treatment agglutinates vegetative cells and reduces their motility. Because Gp047 is highly conserved among all campylobacter phages sequenced to date, it is likely that this protein plays an important role in the phage life cycle.
Song X, Heimburg-Molinaro J, Smith DF, Cummings RD. Glycan microarrays of fluorescently-tagged natural glycans. Glycoconj J. 2015;32 (7) :465-73.Abstract
This review discusses the challenges facing research in 'functional glycomics' and the novel technologies that are being developed to advance the field. The structural complexity of glycans and glycoconjugates makes studies of both their structures and recognition difficult. However, these intricate structures can be captured from their natural sources, isolated and fluorescently-tagged for detailed structural analysis and for presentation on glycan microarrays for functional recognition by glycan-binding proteins. These advances in glycan preparation and manipulation enable the streamlining of functional glycomics studies and will help to propel the field forward in studying natural, biologically relevant glycans.
Krishnamurthy VR, Sardar MYR, Ying Y, Song X, Haller C, Dai E, Wang X, Hanjaya-Putra D, Sun L, Morikis V, et al. Glycopeptide analogues of PSGL-1 inhibit P-selectin in vitro and in vivo. Nat Commun. 2015;6 :6387.Abstract
Blockade of P-selectin (P-sel)/PSGL-1 interactions holds significant potential for treatment of disorders of innate immunity, thrombosis and cancer. Current inhibitors remain limited due to low binding affinity or by the recognized disadvantages inherent to chronic administration of antibody therapeutics. Here we report an efficient approach for generating glycosulfopeptide mimics of N-terminal PSGL-1 through development of a stereoselective route for multi-gram scale synthesis of the C2 O-glycan building block and replacement of hydrolytically labile tyrosine sulfates with isosteric sulfonate analogues. Library screening afforded a compound of exceptional stability, GSnP-6, that binds to human P-sel with nanomolar affinity (Kd~22 nM). Molecular dynamics simulation defines the origin of this affinity in terms of a number of critical structural contributions. GSnP-6 potently blocks P-sel/PSGL-1 interactions in vitro and in vivo and represents a promising candidate for the treatment of diseases driven by acute and chronic inflammation.
Prasanphanich NS, Song X, Heimburg-Molinaro J, Luyai AE, Lasanajak Y, Cutler CE, Smith DF, Cummings RD. Intact reducing glycan promotes the specific immune response to lacto-N-neotetraose-BSA neoglycoconjugates. Bioconjug Chem. 2015;26 (3) :559-71.Abstract
The mammalian immune system responds to eukaryotic glycan antigens during infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, but the immunological bases for such responses are unclear. Conjugate vaccines containing bacterial polysaccharides linked to carrier proteins (neoglycoconjugates) have proven successful, but these often contain repeating epitopes and the reducing end of the glycan is less important, unlike typical glycan determinants in eukaryotes, which are shorter in length and may include the reducing end. Here, we have compared the effects of two linkage methods, one that opens the ring at the reducing end of the glycan, and one that leaves the reducing end closed, on the glycan specificity of the vaccine response in rabbits and mice. We immunized rabbits and mice with bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates of synthetic open- and closed-ring forms (OR versus CR) of a simple tetrasaccharide lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT, Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc), and tested reactivity to the immunogens and several related glycans in both OR and CR versions on glycan microarrays. We found that in rabbits the immune response to the CR conjugate was directed toward the glycan, whereas the OR conjugate elicited antibodies to the reducing end of the glycan and linker region but not specifically to the glycan itself. Unexpectedly, mice did not generate a glycan-specific response to the CR conjugate. Our findings indicate that the reducing end of the sugar is crucial for generation of a glycan-specific response to some eukaryotic vaccine epitopes, and that there are species-specific differences in the ability to make a glycan-specific response to some glycoconjugates. These findings warrant further investigation with regard to rational design of glycoconjugate vaccines.
Zeng J, Mi R, Wang Y, Li Y, Lin L, Yao B, Song L, van Die I, Chapman AB, Cummings RD, et al. Promoters of Human Cosmc and T-synthase Genes Are Similar in Structure, Yet Different in Epigenetic Regulation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290 (31) :19018-33.Abstract
The T-synthase (core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase) and its molecular chaperone Cosmc regulate the biosynthesis of mucin type O-glycans on glycoproteins, and evidence suggests that both T-synthase and Cosmc are transcriptionally suppressed in several human diseases, although the transcriptional regulation of these two genes is not understood. Here, we characterized the promoters essential for human Cosmc and T-synthase transcription. The upstream regions of the genes lack a conventional TATA box but contain CpG islands, cCpG-I and cCpG-II for Cosmc and tCpG for T-synthase. Using luciferase reporter assays, site-directed mutagenesis, ChIP assays, and mithramycin A treatment, we identified the core promoters within cCpG-II and tCpG, which contain two binding sites for Krüppel-like transcription factors, including SP1/SP3, respectively. Methylome analysis of Tn4 B cells, which harbor a silenced Cosmc, confirmed the hypermethylation of the Cosmc core promoter but not for T-synthase. These results demonstrate that Cosmc and T-synthase are transcriptionally regulated at a basal level by the specificity protein/Krüppel-like transcription factor family of members, which explains their ubiquitous and coordinated expression, and also indicate that they are differentially epigenetically regulated beyond X chromosome imprinting. These results are important in understanding the regulation of these genes that have roles in human diseases, such as IgA nephropathy and cancer.
Wesener DA, Wangkanont K, McBride R, Song X, Kraft MB, Hodges HL, Zarling LC, Splain RA, Smith DF, Cummings RD, et al. Recognition of microbial glycans by human intelectin-1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2015;22 (8) :603-10.Abstract
The glycans displayed on mammalian cells can differ markedly from those on microbes. Such differences could, in principle, be 'read' by carbohydrate-binding proteins, or lectins. We used glycan microarrays to show that human intelectin-1 (hIntL-1) does not bind known human glycan epitopes but does interact with multiple glycan epitopes found exclusively on microbes: β-linked D-galactofuranose (β-Galf), D-phosphoglycerol-modified glycans, heptoses, D-glycero-D-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KO) and 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO). The 1.6-Å-resolution crystal structure of hIntL-1 complexed with β-Galf revealed that hIntL-1 uses a bound calcium ion to coordinate terminal exocyclic 1,2-diols. N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid widespread in human glycans, has an exocyclic 1,2-diol but does not bind hIntL-1, probably owing to unfavorable steric and electronic effects. hIntL-1 marks only Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes that display surface glycans with terminal 1,2-diol groups. This ligand selectivity suggests that hIntL-1 functions in microbial surveillance.
Klaver EJ, Kuijk LM, Lindhorst TK, Cummings RD, van Die I. Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens Induce Expression of the Negative Regulators SOCS1 and SHP1 in Human Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Mannose Receptor. PLoS One. 2015;10 (4) :e0124089.Abstract
Schistosomiasis is a common debilitating human parasitic disease in (sub)tropical areas, however, schistosome infections can also protect against a variety of inflammatory diseases. This has raised broad interest in the mechanisms by which Schistosoma modulate the immune system into an anti-inflammatory and regulatory state. Human dendritic cells (DCs) show many phenotypic changes upon contact with Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA). We here show that oxidation of SEA glycans, but not heat-denaturation, abrogates the capacity of SEA to suppress both LPS-induced cytokine secretion and DC proliferation, indicating an important role of SEA glycans in these processes. Remarkably, interaction of SEA glycans with DCs results in a strongly increased expression of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling1 (SOCS1) and SH2-containing protein tyrosine Phosphatase-1 (SHP1), important negative regulators of TLR4 signalling. In addition, SEA induces the secretion of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and the surface expression of the costimulatory molecules Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) and OX40 ligand (OX40L), which are known phenotypic markers for the capacity of DCs to polarize naïve T cells into Th2/Treg cell subsets. Inhibition of mannose receptor (MR)-mediated internalization of SEA into DCs by blocking with allyl α-D-mannoside or anti-MR antibodies, significantly reduced SOCS1 and SHP1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SEA glycans are essential for induction of enhanced SOCS1 and SHP1 levels in DCs via the MR. Our data provide novel mechanistic evidence for the potential of S. mansoni SEA glycans to modulate human DCs, which may contribute to the capacity of SEA to down-regulate inflammatory responses.
Kudelka MR, Ju T, Heimburg-Molinaro J, Cummings RD. Simple sugars to complex disease--mucin-type O-glycans in cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2015;126 :53-135.Abstract
Mucin-type O-glycans are a class of glycans initiated with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) α-linked primarily to Ser/Thr residues within glycoproteins and often extended or branched by sugars or saccharides. Most secretory and membrane-bound proteins receive this modification, which is important in regulating many biological processes. Alterations in mucin-type O-glycans have been described across tumor types and include expression of relatively small-sized, truncated O-glycans and altered terminal structures, both of which are associated with patient prognosis. New discoveries in the identity and expression of tumor-associated O-glycans are providing new avenues for tumor detection and treatment. This chapter describes mucin-type O-glycan biosynthesis, altered mucin-type O-glycans in primary tumors, including mechanisms for structural changes and contributions to the tumor phenotype, and clinical approaches to detect and target altered O-glycans for cancer treatment and management.
Marchiori MF, Souto DEP, Bortot LO, Pereira JF, Kubota LT, Cummings RD, Dias-Baruffi M, Carvalho I, Campo VL. Synthetic 1,2,3-triazole-linked glycoconjugates bind with high affinity to human galectin-3. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015;23 (13) :3414-25.Abstract
This work describes the synthesis of the 1,2,3-triazole amino acid-derived-3-O-galactosides 1-6 and the 1,2,3-triazole di-lactose-derived glycoconjugate 7 as potential galectin-3 inhibitors. The target compounds were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction ('click chemistry') between the azido-derived amino acids N3-ThrOBn, N3-PheOBn, N3-N-Boc-TrpOBn, N3-N-Boc-LysOBn, N3-O-tBu-AspOBn and N3-l-TyrOH, and the corresponding alkyne-based sugar 3-O-propynyl-GalOMe, as well as by click chemistry reaction between the azido-lactose and 2-propynyl lactose. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays showed that all synthetic glycoconjugates 1-7 bound to galectin-3 with high affinity, but the highest binders were the amino acids-derived glycoconjugates 2 (KD 7.96μM) and 4 (KD 4.56μM), and the divalent lactoside 7 (KD1 0.15μM/KD2 19μM). Molecular modeling results were in agreement with SPR assays, since more stable interactions with galectin-3 were identified for glycoconjugates 2, 4 and 7. Regarding compounds 2 and 4, they established specific cation-π (Arg144) and ionic (Asp148) interactions, whereas glycoconjugate 7 was capable to bridge two independent galectin-3 CRDs, creating a non-covalent cross-link between two monomers and, thus, reaching a submicromolar affinity towards galectin-3.
Klaver EJ, van der Pouw Kraan TCTM, Laan LC, Kringel H, Cummings RD, Bouma G, Kraal G, van Die I. Trichuris suis soluble products induce Rab7b expression and limit TLR4 responses in human dendritic cells. Genes Immun. 2015;16 (6) :378-87.Abstract
Inflammatory immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis are major health problems. Currently, the intestinal whipworm Trichuris suis is being explored in clinical trials to reduce inflammation in these diseases; however, the mechanisms by which the parasite affects the host immune system are not known. Here we determined the effects of T. suis soluble products (SPs) on Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-stimulated human dendritic cells (DCs) using Illumina bead chip gene arrays. Pathway analysis of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated DCs with or without T. suis treatment showed that co-stimulation with T. suis SPs resulted in a downregulation of both the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent and the TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β-dependent signalling pathways triggered by TLR4. These data were verified using quantitative real-time PCR of several key genes within these pathways and/or defining their protein levels. In addition, T. suis SPs induce Rab7b, a negative regulator of TLR4 signalling that interferes with its trafficking, which coincided with a reduced surface expression of TLR4. These data indicate that the mechanism by which T. suis SPs reduce inflammatory responses is through suppression of both TLR4 signalling and surface expression on DCs.
Hu L, Ramani S, Czako R, Sankaran B, Yu Y, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Estes MK, Venkataram Prasad BV. Structural basis of glycan specificity in neonate-specific bovine-human reassortant rotavirus. Nat Commun. 2015;6 :8346.Abstract
Strain-dependent variation of glycan recognition during initial cell attachment of viruses is a critical determinant of host specificity, tissue-tropism and zoonosis. Rotaviruses (RVs), which cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in infants and children, display significant genotype-dependent variations in glycan recognition resulting from sequence alterations in the VP8* domain of the spike protein VP4. The structural basis of this genotype-dependent glycan specificity, particularly in human RVs, remains poorly understood. Here, from crystallographic studies, we show how genotypic variations configure a novel binding site in the VP8* of a neonate-specific bovine-human reassortant to uniquely recognize either type I or type II precursor glycans, and to restrict type II glycan binding in the bovine counterpart. Such a distinct glycan-binding site that allows differential recognition of the precursor glycans, which are developmentally regulated in the neonate gut and abundant in bovine and human milk provides a basis for age-restricted tropism and zoonotic transmission of G10P[11] rotaviruses.
Varki A, Cummings RD, Aebi M, Packer NH, Seeberger PH, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart G, Darvill A, Kinoshita T, et al. Symbol Nomenclature for Graphical Representations of Glycans. Glycobiology. 2015;25 (12) :1323-4.
Kooij G, Braster R, Koning JJ, Laan LC, van Vliet SJ, Los T, Eveleens AM, van der Pol SMA, Förster-Waldl E, Boztug K, et al. Trichuris suis induces human non-classical patrolling monocytes via the mannose receptor and PKC: implications for multiple sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015;3 :45.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The inverse correlation between prevalence of auto-immune disorders like the chronic neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the occurrence of helminth (worm) infections, suggests that the helminth-trained immune system is protective against auto-immunity. As monocytes are regarded as crucial players in the pathogenesis of auto-immune diseases, we explored the hypothesis that these innate effector cells are prime targets for helminths to exert their immunomodulatory effects. RESULTS: Here we show that soluble products of the porcine nematode Trichuris suis (TsSP) are potent in changing the phenotype and function of human monocytes by skewing classical monocytes into anti-inflammatory patrolling cells, which exhibit reduced trans-endothelial migration capacity in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Mechanistically, we identified the mannose receptor as the TsSP-interacting monocyte receptor and we revealed that specific downstream signalling occurs via protein kinase C (PKC), and in particular PKCδ. CONCLUSION: This study provides comprehensive mechanistic insight into helminth-induced immunomodulation, which can be therapeutically exploited to combat various auto-immune disorders.
Air GM. Influenza virus-glycan interactions. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;7 :128-33.Abstract
It has been known for many years that influenza viruses bind by their hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein to sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) on the surface of the host cell, and that avian viruses most commonly bind to sialic acid linked α2-3 to galactose while most human viruses bind to sialic acid in the α2-6 configuration. Over the past few years there has been a large increase in data on this binding due to technological advances in glycan binding assays, reverse genetic systems for influenza and in X-ray crystallography. The results show some surprising changes in binding specificity that do not appear to affect the ability of the virus to infect host cells.
Song X, Ju H, Zhao C, Lasanajak Y. Novel strategy to release and tag N-glycans for functional glycomics. Bioconjug Chem. 2014;25 (10) :1881-7.Abstract
Functional glycomics has been impeded by the lack of inexpensive enzymatic and mild chemical methods to acquire natural glycans in significant amounts. In this study, we have developed a new strategy we term "threshing and trimming" (TaT) to quickly obtain N-glycans from glycoproteins and animal tissues. TaT employs low-cost Pronase to degrade peptides and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to effect oxidative decarboxylation under very mild reaction conditions to generate homogeneous aglycon moieties as nitriles or aldehydes. These aglycons can be readily conjugated with fluorescent tags for profiling and functional study. TaT is an affordable alternative to expensive specialty enzymes and strong chemical treatment and unpleasant reagents, and should further drive the functional glycomics of N-glycans.
Cummings RD, Pierce MJ. The challenge and promise of glycomics. Chem Biol. 2014;21 (1) :1-15.Abstract
Glycomics is a broad and emerging scientific discipline focused on defining the structures and functional roles of glycans in biological systems. The staggering complexity of the glycome, minimally defined as the repertoire of glycans expressed in a cell or organism, has resulted in many challenges that must be overcome; these are being addressed by new advances in mass spectrometry as well as by the expansion of genetic and cell biology studies. Conversely, identifying the specific glycan recognition determinants of glycan-binding proteins by employing the new technology of glycan microarrays is providing insights into how glycans function in recognition and signaling within an organism and with microbes and pathogens. The promises of a more complete knowledge of glycomes are immense in that glycan modifications of intracellular and extracellular proteins have critical functions in almost all biological pathways.
Song X, Heimburg-Molinaro J, Cummings RD, Smith DF. Chemistry of natural glycan microarrays. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2014;18 :70-7.Abstract
Glycan microarrays have become indispensable tools for studying protein-glycan interactions. Along with chemo-enzymatic synthesis, glycans isolated from natural sources have played important roles in array development and will continue to be a major source of glycans. N-glycans and O-glycans from glycoproteins, and glycans from glycosphingolipids (GSLs) can be released from corresponding glycoconjugates with relatively mature methods, although isolation of large numbers and quantities of glycans is still very challenging. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are less represented on current glycan microarrays. Glycan microarray development has been greatly facilitated by bifunctional fluorescent linkers, which can be applied in a 'Shotgun Glycomics' approach to incorporate isolated natural glycans. Glycan presentation on microarrays may affect glycan binding by GBPs, often through multivalent recognition by the GBP.
Mimche SM, Nyagode BA, Merrell MD, Lee C-M, Prasanphanich NS, Cummings RD, Morgan ET. Hepatic cytochrome P450s, phase II enzymes and nuclear receptors are downregulated in a Th2 environment during Schistosoma mansoni infection. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014;42 (1) :134-40.Abstract
Inflammation and infection downregulate the activity and expression of cytochrome P450s (P450s) and other drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) involved in hepatic drug clearance. Schistosoma mansoni infection was reported to cause a downregulation of hepatic P450-dependent activities in mouse liver, but little is known about the specific enzymes affected or whether phase II DMEs are also affected. Here we describe the effect of murine schistosomiasis on the expression of hepatic P450s, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, and nuclear receptors at 30 and 45 days postinfection (dpi). Although the hepatic expression of some of these genes was altered at 30 dpi, we observed substantial changes in the expression of the majority of P450 mRNAs and proteins measured, Cpr protein, as well as many of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases at 45 dpi. S. mansoni infection also altered nuclear receptor expression, inducing mRNA levels at 30 dpi and depressing levels at 45 dpi. S. mansoni evoked a T helper 2 (Th2) inflammatory response at 45 dpi, as indicated by the induction of hepatic Th2 cytokine mRNAs [interleukins 4, 5, and 13], whereas the hepatic proinflammatory response was relatively weak. Thus, chronic schistosomiasis markedly and selectively alters the expression of multiple DMEs, which may be associated with Th2 cytokine release. This would represent a novel mechanism of DME regulation in disease states. These findings have important implications for drug testing in infected mice, whereas the relevance to humans with schistosomiasis needs to be determined.