Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious complication occurring in 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for which there is a lack of biomarkers, a lack of specific medications, and a lack of a clear understanding of its pathogenesis. The expression of calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMK4) is increased in podocytes of patients with LN and lupus-prone mice, and its podocyte-targeted inhibition averts the development of nephritis in mice. Nephrin is a key podocyte molecule essential for the maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm. Here, we show that the presence of fucose on N-glycans of IgG induces, whereas the presence of galactose ameliorates, podocyte injury through CaMK4 expression. Mechanistically, CaMK4 phosphorylates NF-kappaB, upregulates the transcriptional repressor SNAIL, and limits the expression of nephrin. In addition, we demonstrate that increased expression of CaMK4 in biopsy specimens and in urine podocytes from people with LN is linked to active kidney disease. Our data shed light on the role of IgG glycosylation in the development of podocyte injury and propose the development of "liquid kidney biopsy" approaches to diagnose LN.
Mucin-type O-glycosylation (O-glycans, O-glycome) is among the most biologically important post-translational modification in glycoproteins but O-glycan structural diversity and expression are poorly understood due to the inadequacy of current analytical methods. We recently developed a new tool termed cellular O-glycome reporter/amplification (CORA), which uses O-glycan precursors, benzyl-alpha-GalNAc (Bn-alpha-GalNAc) or azido-Bn-alpha-GalNAc (N3 -Bn-alpha-GalNAc), as surrogates of protein O-glycosylation. Living cells metabolically convert these precursors to all types of O-GalNAc glycans representative of the cells' capabilities. The amplification and secretion of the O-glycome products greatly facilitates their analysis and functional studies. Here we describe protocols for analytical and preparative applications. (c) 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Basic Protocol 1: Cellular O-glycome reporter/amplification for the analysis of mucin-type O-glycans from living cells Basic Protocol 2: Preparation of cellular O-glycans from living cells for functional glycomics and glycan microarrays Basic Protocol 3: Conjugation of cellular O-glycans with a bifunctional fluorescent tag Basic Protocol 4: 2D-HPLC purification and MALDI-TOF/MS identification of individual PYAB-Bn-O-glycan.
The recognition of oligomannose-type glycans in innate and adaptive immunity is elusive due to multiple closely related isomeric glycan structures. To explore the functions of oligomannoses, we developed a multifaceted approach combining mass spectrometry assignments of oligomannose substructures and the development of a comprehensive oligomannose microarray. This defined microarray encompasses both linear and branched glycans, varying in linkages, branching patterns, and phosphorylation status. With this resource, we identified unique recognition of oligomannose motifs by innate immune receptors, including DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, Dectin-2, and Langerin, broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV gp120, N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, and the bacterial adhesin FimH. The results demonstrate that each protein exhibits a unique specificity to oligomannose motifs and suggest the potential to rationally design inhibitors to selectively block these protein-glycan interactions.
The terminal galactose residues of N- and O-glycans in animal glycoproteins are often sialylated and/or fucosylated, but sulfation, such as 3-O-sulfated galactose (3-O-SGal), represents an additional, but poorly understood modification. To this end, we have developed a novel sea lamprey variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) termed O6 to explore 3-O-SGal expression. O6 was engineered as a recombinant murine IgG chimera and its specificity and affinity to the 3-O-SGal epitope was defined using a variety of approaches, including glycan and glycoprotein microarray analyses, isothermal calorimetry, ligand-bound crystal structure, FACS, and immunohistochemistry of human tissue macroarrays. 3-O-SGal is expressed on N-glycans of many plasma and tissue glycoproteins, but recognition by O6 is often masked by sialic acid and thus exposed by treatment with neuraminidase. O6 recognizes many human tissues, consistent with expression of the cognate sulfotransferases (GAL3ST-2 and GAL3ST-3). The availability of O6 for exploring 3-O-SGal expression could lead to new biomarkers for disease and aid in understanding the functional roles of terminal modifications of glycans and relationships between terminal sulfation, sialylation and fucosylation.
Events mediated by the P-selectin/PSGL-1 pathway play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of venous thrombosis by facilitating the accumulation of leukocytes and platelets within the growing thrombus. Activated platelets and endothelium both express P-selectin, which binds PSGL-1 expressed on the surface of all leukocytes. We developed a pegylated glycomimetic of the N-terminus of PSGL-1, PEG40-GSnP-6 (P-G6), which proved to be a highly potent P-selectin inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile for clinical translation. P-G6 inhibits human and mouse platelet-monocyte and platelet-neutrophil aggregation in vitro and blocks microcirculatory platelet-leukocyte interactions in vivo. Administration of P-G6 reduces thrombus formation in a non-occlusive model of deep vein thrombosis with a commensurate reduction in leukocyte accumulation, but without disruption of hemostasis. P-G6 potently inhibits the P-selectin/PSGL-1 pathway and represents a promising drug candidate for the prevention of venous thrombosis without increased bleeding risk.
The macrophage mannose receptor (CD206, MR) is an endocytic lectin receptor which plays an important role in homeostasis and innate immunity, however, the endogenous glycan and glycoprotein ligands recognized by its C-type lectin domains (CTLD) have not been well studied. Here we used the murine MR CTLD4-7 coupled to the Fc-portion of human IgG (MR-Fc) to investigate the MR glycan and glycoprotein recognition. We probed 16 different cancer and control tissues using the MR-Fc, and observed cell- and tissue-specific binding with varying intensity. All cancer tissues and several control tissues exhibited MR-Fc ligands, intracellular and/or surface-located. We further confirmed the presence of ligands on the surface of cancer cells by flow cytometry. To characterize the fine specificity of the MR for glycans, we screened a panel of glycan microarrays. Remarkably, the results indicate that the CTLD4-7 of the MR is highly selective for specific types of pauci- and oligomannose N-glycans among hundreds of glycans tested. As lung cancer tissue and the lung cancer cell line A549 showed intense MR-Fc binding, we further investigated the MR glycoprotein ligands in those cells by immunoprecipitation and glycoproteomic analysis. All enriched glycoproteins, of which 42 were identified, contained pauci- or oligomannose N-glycans, confirming the microarray results. Our study demonstrates that the MR CTLD4-7 is highly selective for pauci- and oligomannosidic N-glycans, structures that are often elevated in tumor cells, and suggest a potential role for the MR in tumor biology.
The repertoire of glycans expressed by individual cells and tissues is enormous, and various estimates indicate that thousands of different glycans and "glycan determinants" are critical for functional recognition by glycan-binding proteins. Defining the steady-state expression and functional impacts of the human glycome will require a concerted worldwide effort, along with the development of new immunological, genetic, chemical, and biochemical technologies. Here, we describe the generation of smart anti-glycan reagents (SAGRs), recombinant antibodies that recognize novel glycan determinants. The antibodies are generated by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), through immunization with glycoconjugates, cells, and even tissues. SAGRs represent a versatile immunological tool for defining the expression of glycans in cells and tissues. We also present a comparison of lamprey-derived anti-carbohydrate antibodies that have been characterized to date. Finally, we explore the unique glyco-genome of the lamprey itself as it compares to those of humans and mice and how it may relate to the lamprey's inherent capacity to produce antibodies to mammalian glycans.
Glycan recognition is typically studied using free glycans, but glycopeptide presentations represent more physiological conditions for glycoproteins. To facilitate studies of glycopeptide recognition, we developed Glyco-SPOT synthesis, which enables the parallel production of diverse glycopeptide libraries at microgram scales. The method uses a closed system for prolonged reactions required for coupling Fmoc-protected glycoamino acids, including O-, N-, and S-linked glycosides, and release conditions to prevent side reactions. To optimize reaction conditions and sample reaction progress, we devised a biopsy testing method. We demonstrate the efficient utilization of such microscale glycopeptide libraries to determine the specificity of glycan-recognizing antibodies (e.g., CTD110.6) using microarrays, enzyme specificity on-array and in-solution (e.g., ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, and T-synthase), and binding kinetics using fluorescence polarization. We demonstrated that the glycosylation on these peptides can be expanded using glycosyltransferases both in-solution and on-array. This technology will promote the discovery of biological functions of peptide modifications by glycans.
Glycosylation, the enzymatic attachment of carbohydrates to proteins and lipids, regulates nearly all cellular processes and is critical in the development and function of the nervous system. Axon pathfinding, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, neurotransmission, and many other neuronal processes are regulated by glycans. Over the past 25 years, studies analyzing post-mortem brain samples have found evidence of aberrant glycosylation in individuals with schizophrenia. Proteins involved in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission display altered glycans in the disease state, including AMPA and kainate receptor subunits, glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the GABA receptor. Polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM) and perineuronal nets, highly glycosylated molecules critical for axonal migration and synaptic stabilization, are both downregulated in multiple brain regions of individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, enzymes spanning several pathways of glycan synthesis show differential expression in brains of individuals with schizophrenia. These changes may be due to genetic predisposition, environmental perturbations, medication use, or a combination of these factors. However, the recent association of several enzymes of glycosylation with schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies underscores the importance of glycosylation in this disease. Understanding how glycosylation is dysregulated in the brain will further our understanding of how this pathway contributes to the development and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
The antigen-binding variable regions of the B cell receptor (BCR) and of antibodies are encoded by exons that are assembled in developing B cells by V(D)J recombination. The BCR repertoires of primary B cells are vast owing to mechanisms that create diversity at the junctions of V(D)J gene segments that contribute to complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3), the region that binds antigen. Primary B cells undergo antigen-driven BCR affinity maturation through somatic hypermutation and cellular selection in germinal centres (GCs). Although most GCs are transient, those in intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs)-which depend on the gut microbiota-are chronic, and little is known about their BCR repertoires or patterns of somatic hypermutation. Here, using a high-throughput assay that analyses both V(D)J segment usage and somatic hypermutation profiles, we elucidate physiological BCR repertoires in mouse PP GCs. PP GCs from different mice expand public BCR clonotypes (clonotypes that are shared between many mice) that often have canonical CDR3s in the immunoglobulin heavy chain that, owing to junctional biases during V(D)J recombination, appear much more frequently than predicted in naive B cell repertoires. Some public clonotypes are dependent on the gut microbiota and encode antibodies that are reactive to bacterial glycans, whereas others are independent of gut bacteria. Transfer of faeces from specific-pathogen-free mice to germ-free mice restored germ-dependent clonotypes, directly implicating BCR selection. We identified somatic hypermutations that were recurrently selected in such public clonotypes, indicating that affinity maturation occurs in mouse PP GCs under homeostatic conditions. Thus, persistent gut antigens select recurrent BCR clonotypes to seed chronic PP GC responses.
OBJECTIVE: To measure anti-glycan antibodies (AGA) in cervical cancer (CC) patient sera and assess their effect on therapeutic outcome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum AGA was measured in 276 stage II and 292 stage III Peruvian CC patients using a high content and throughput Luminex multiplex glycan array (LMGA) containing 177 glycans. Association with disease-specific survival (DSS) and progression free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Cox regression.
RESULTS: AGAs were detected against 50 (28.3%) of the 177 glycans assayed. Of the 568 patients, 84.5% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus brachytherapy (BT), while 15.5% only received EBRT. For stage-matched patients (Stage III), receiving EBRT alone was significantly associated with worse survival (HR 6.4, p < 0.001). Stage III patients have significantly worse survival than Stage II patients after matching for treatment (HR = 2.8 in EBRT+BT treatment group). Furthermore, better PFS and DSS were observed in patients positive for AGA against multiple glycans belonging to the blood group H, Lewis, Ganglio, Isoglobo, lacto and sialylated tetrarose antigens (best HR = 0.49, best p = 0.0008).
CONCLUSIONS: Better PFS and DSS are observed in cervical cancer patients that are positive for specific antiglycan antibodies and received brachytherapy.
The continual emergence of novel influenza A strains from non-human hosts requires constant vigilance and the need for ongoing research to identify strains that may pose a human public health risk. Since 1999, canine H3 influenza A viruses (CIVs) have caused many thousands or millions of respiratory infections in dogs in the United States. While no human infections with CIVs have been reported to date, these viruses could pose a zoonotic risk. In these studies, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network collaboratively demonstrated that CIVs replicated in some primary human cells and transmitted effectively in mammalian models. While people born after 1970 had little or no pre-existing humoral immunity against CIVs, the viruses were sensitive to existing antivirals and we identified a panel of H3 cross-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) that could have prophylactic and/or therapeutic value. Our data predict these CIVs posed a low risk to humans. Importantly, we showed that the CEIRS network could work together to provide basic research information important for characterizing emerging influenza viruses, although there were valuable lessons learned.
The molecular mechanisms regulating lymphocyte homing into lymph nodes are only partly understood. Here, we report that B cell-specific deletion of the X-linked gene, Cosmc, and the consequent decrease of protein O-glycosylation, induces developmental blocks of mouse B cells. After transfer into wild-type recipient, Cosmc-null B cells fail to home to lymph nodes as well as non-lymphoid organs. Enzymatic desialylation of wild-type B cells blocks their migration into lymph nodes, indicating a requirement of sialylated O-glycans for proper trafficking. Mechanistically, Cosmc-deficient B cells have normal rolling and firm arrest on high endothelium venules (HEV), thereby attributing their inefficient trafficking to alterations in the subsequent transendothelial migration step. Finally, Cosmc-null B cells have defective chemokine signaling responses. Our results thus demonstrate that Cosmc and its effects on O-glycosylation are important for controlling B cell homing.
Studies on the expression of cellular glycans are limited by a lack of sensitive tools that can discriminate specific structural features. Here we describe the development of a robust platform using immunized lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), which secrete variable lymphocyte receptors called VLRBs as antibodies, for generating libraries of anti-glycan reagents. We identified a wide variety of glycan-specific VLRBs detectable in lamprey plasma after immunization with whole fixed cells, tissue homogenates, and human milk. The cDNAs from lamprey lymphocytes were cloned into yeast surface display (YSD) libraries for enrichment by multiple methods. We generated VLRB-Ig chimeras, termed smart anti-glycan reagents (SAGRs), whose specificities were defined by microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. 15 VLRB antibodies were discovered that discriminated between linkages, functional groups and unique presentations of the terminal glycan motif. The development of SAGRs will enhance future studies on glycan expression by providing sequenced, defined antibodies for a variety of research applications.
Mild modification of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been reported to result in enhanced polyspecificity and leveraged therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammation. Here, we observed that IVIG modification by ferrous ions, heme or low pH exposure, shifted the repertoires of specificities in different directions. Ferrous ions exposed Fe(II)-IVIG, but not heme or low pH exposed IVIG, showed increased pro-apoptotic effects on neutrophil granulocytes that relied on a FAS-dependent mechanism. These effects were also observed in human neutrophils primed by inflammatory mediators or rheumatoid arthritis joint fluid , or patient neutrophils from acute Crohn's disease. These observations indicate that IVIG-mediated effects on cells can be enhanced by IVIG modification, yet specific modification conditions may be required to target specific molecular pathways and eventually to enhance the therapeutic potential.
Advances in genomics are opening new windows into the biology of schizophrenia. Though common variants individually have small effects on disease risk, GWAS provide a powerful opportunity to explore pathways and mechanisms contributing to pathophysiology. Here, we highlight an underappreciated biological theme emerging from GWAS: the role of glycosylation in schizophrenia. The strongest coding variant in schizophrenia GWAS is a missense mutation in the manganese transporter SLC39A8, which is associated with altered glycosylation patterns in humans. Furthermore, variants near several genes encoding glycosylation enzymes are unambiguously associated with schizophrenia: FUT9, MAN2A1, TMTC1, GALNT10, and B3GAT1. Here, we summarize the known biological functions, target substrates, and expression patterns of these enzymes as a primer for future studies. We also highlight a subset of schizophrenia-associated proteins critically modified by glycosylation including glutamate receptors, voltage-gated calcium channels, the dopamine D2 receptor, and complement glycoproteins. We hypothesize that common genetic variants alter brain glycosylation and play a fundamental role in the development of schizophrenia. Leveraging these findings will advance our mechanistic understanding of disease and may provide novel avenues for treatment development.
MOTIVATION: Glycan structures are commonly represented using symbols or linear nomenclature such as that from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (also known as modified IUPAC-condensed nomenclature). No current tool allows for writing the name in such format using a graphical user interface (GUI); thus, names are prone to errors or non-standardized representations.
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The application can be used at: https://glycotoolkit.com/Tools/GlycoGlyph/. The application is tested to work in modern web browsers such as Firefox or Chrome.
CONTACT: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
MOTIVATION: Glycan microarrays are capable of illuminating the interactions of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) against hundreds of defined glycan structures, and have revolutionized the investigations of protein-carbohydrate interactions underlying numerous critical biological activities. However, it is difficult to interpret microarray data and identify structural determinants promoting glycan binding to glycan-binding proteins due to the ambiguity in microarray fluorescence intensity and complexity in branched glycan structures. To facilitate analysis of glycan microarray data alongside protein structure, we have built the Glycan Microarray Database (GlyMDB), a web-based resource including a searchable database of glycan microarray samples and a toolset for data/structure analysis.
RESULTS: The current GlyMDB provides data visualization and glycan-binding motif discovery for 5203 glycan microarray samples collected from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. The unique feature of GlyMDB is to link microarray data to PDB structures. The GlyMDB provides different options for database query, and allows users to upload their microarray data for analysis. After search or upload is complete, users can choose the criterion for binder versus non-binder classification. They can view the signal intensity graph including the binder/non-binder threshold followed by a list of glycan-binding motifs. One can also compare the fluorescence intensity data from two different microarray samples. A protein sequence-based search is performed using BLAST to match microarray data with all available PDB structures containing glycans. The glycan ligand information is displayed, and links are provided for structural visualization and redirection to other modules in GlycanStructure.ORG for further investigation of glycan-binding sites and glycan structures.
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://www.glycanstructure.org/glymdb.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Glycans within human lungs are recognized by many pathogens such as influenza A virus (IAV), yet little is known about their structures. Here we present the first analysis of the N- and O- and glycosphingolipid-glycans from total human lungs, along with histological analyses of IAV binding. The N-glycome of human lung contains extremely large complex-type N-glycans with linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine (PL) [-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-] extensions, which are predominantly terminated in α2,3-linked sialic acid. By contrast, smaller N-glycans lack PL and are enriched in α2,6-linked sialic acids. In addition, we observed large glycosphingolipid (GSL)-glycans, which also consists of linear PL, terminating in mainly α2,3-linked sialic acid. Histological staining revealed that IAV binds to sialylated and non-sialylated glycans and binding is not concordant with respect to binding by sialic acid-specific lectins. These results extend our understanding of the types of glycans that may serve as binding sites for human lung pathogens.