Preparation of a mannose-6-phosphate glycan microarray through fluorescent derivatization, phosphorylation, and immobilization of natural high-mannose N-glycans and application in ligand identification of P-type lectins.

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Glycan microarrays prepared by immobilization of amino-functionalized glycans on NHS-activated glass slides have been successfully used to study protein-glycan interactions. Fluorescently tagged glycans with an amino functional group can be prepared from natural glycans released from glycoproteins. These tagged glycans can be enzymatically modified with various glycosyltransferases, phosphotransferases, sulfotransferases, etc., to quickly expand the size and diversity of the tagged glycan libraries (TGLs). The TGLs, presented in the format of microarrays, provide a convenient platform for identifying the glycan ligands of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs). The chapter provides the background to prepare a defined glycan microarray and uses as an example glycans generated as phosphodiesters and phosphomonoesters of high-mannose type N-glycans. The method describes the preparation of high-mannose type glycan-AEAB conjugates (GAEABs), the purification of their phosphodiesters, and the subsequent mild acid hydrolysis to obtain corresponding phosphomonoesters. These GAEABs are covalently printed as a phosphorylated glycan microarray and used for analysis of the glycan ligand specificities of P-type lectins, such as the mannose-6-phosphate receptors (Man-6-P receptors or MPRs).