Platelets express a variety of membrane and secreted glycoproteins, but the importance of glycosylation to platelet functions is poorly understood. To explore the importance of O-glycosylation, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of Cosmc in murine endothelial/hematopoietic cells (EHC) (EHC Cosmc(-/y)). X-linked Cosmc encodes an essential chaperone that regulates protein O-glycosylation. This targeted mutation resulted in lethal perinatal hemorrhage in the majority of mice, and the surviving mice displayed severely prolonged tail-bleeding times and macrothrombocytopenia. EHC Cosmc(-/y) platelets exhibited a marked decrease in GPIb-IX-V function and agonist-mediated integrin αIIbβ3 activation, associated with loss of interactions with von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, respectively. Significantly, three O-glycosylated glycoproteins, GPIbα, αIIb, and GPVI normally on platelet surfaces that play essential roles in platelet functions, were partially proteolyzed in EHC Cosmc(-/y) platelets. These results demonstrate that extended O-glycans are required for normal biogenesis of the platelets as well as the expression and functions of their essential glycoproteins, and that variations in O-glycosylation may contribute to altered hemostasis.